Bauer, Arndt, & Gingrich say pathos as it is used in the New Testament, means “passion”. Passion is defined as that which involves powerful or compelling emotions. (Merriam-Webster)
Romans 1:26 For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural, (NASB)
Therefore consider the members of your earthly body as dead to immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed, which amounts to idolatry. (NASB)
1 Thessalonians 4:3-5
For this is the will of God, your sanctification; that is, that you abstain from sexual immorality; that each of you know how to possess his own vessel in sanctification and honor, not in lustful passion, like the Gentiles who do not know God; (NASB)
But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of it, they tore their robes and rushed out into the crowd, crying out and saying, "Men, why are you doing these things? We are also men of the same nature as you, and preach the gospel to you that you should turn from these vain things to a living God… (NASB)
Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out, and saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God... (KJV)
Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it would not rain, and it did not rain on the earth for three years and six months. (NASB)
Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain: and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months. (KJV)
For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin. (NASB)
For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. (KJV)
I hope this brief study gives you some idea of what it means for us to be encouraged to pray, given the example of Elijah. The focus of James is not that Elijah is different from us in his prophetic office, but we share with him a common humanity.
Perhaps more wonderful is how Jesus Christ can understand "the feeling of our infirmities"... Glory be to God and to the Lamb...
~ The Billy Goat ~